Birdwatching in Wagga Wagga


Fungi (Again)
July 29, 2010, 8:05 pm
Filed under: Fungi, Observations | Tags: , , , , ,

A sequel to this earlier post.

A. M. Young (A Field Guide to the Fungi of Australia, UNSW Press) estimates that there may be as many as 250 000 species of fungus in Australia, of which the vast majority are the so-called ‘microfungi’ – moulds, plant rusts, mildews and so on. ‘Macrofungi’ (mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, cups, jellies, coral fungi and so on) account for a relatively small percentage of our overall fungal flora, but there may still be as many as 20 000 macrofungus species in Australia. Most of these are undescribed; many are entirely unknown.

Little is known about the distribution of Australian fungus species (except that the rainforests of eastern Queensland and New South Wales are probably among the most diverse locations), so there is no estimate for the number of species found in the Wagga Wagga area. The thumbnail gallery presently contains 57 images, accounting for probably 54 species (though many have not been properly identified). There are likely to be several hundred more occurring in the area.

This post illustrates a few of the more interesting fungus species from the area.

Mycena clarkeana seems to vary from a vivid pink to a darkish pink-brown. This identification (which is by no means certain) was suggested by I. R. McCann’s Australian Fungi Illustrated.

This photograph was taken in a well-treed area along the Mundarlo Road, which seems to support a surprising diversity (as roadsides go) of both flora and fauna. The fungus was found growing in a sheltered spot at the base of a eucalypt.

This species produces tiny parasols on the side of (in fact, almost underneath) rotting logs. This behaviour is shared by many members of the genus Mycena, making identification extremely difficult.

This photograph was taken at Wiesners Swamp Nature Reserve, which is roughly 100km (so Google Maps tells me) south-west of Wagga Wagga. Specimens belonging to this species, or to a closely related species, are often found much closer to Wagga, however.

This is a common and distinctive species, identified by its tall stem (which extends a short distance underground), its brown cap and its bright white gills. The subterranean part of the stem resembles a long taproot, giving the species its common name. The Rooting Shank can be quite viscid when wet but seems to dry rapidly in warmer weather. Young specimens have rounded caps, whereas older ones tend to have flattened caps, sometimes with a small raised section in the middle (called the ‘boss’ or ‘umbo’).

This species has been recorded along Mundarlo Road, on Willans Hill (where the photograph was taken) and at Livingstone National Park. It is likely to be found elsewhere.

Ramaria species produce coral- or lichen-like fruiting bodies, often amongst leaf-litter in woodland. The photograph above shows the only coral fungus specimen I have seen in the Wagga area. It is assumed to be a species of Ramaria, though there are at least two other genera of coral fungus represented in Australia (Ramariopsis and Clavaria). This specimen was found on the northern part of Livingstone National Park.

Poronia erici is a common and distinctive coprophilous (dung-loving) species. It is usually found on kangaroo dung, but according to Bruce Fuhrer (A Field Guide to Australian Fungi, Bloomings Books) it can also occur on wombat, rabbit and occasionally horse dung. Individual discs (or ‘buttons’) are less (often much less) than 1cm in diameter.

It has been recorded at Mates Gully Rd. TSR, Wokolena Rd. TSR, Willans Hill and Livingstone National Park, and can probably be found wherever there are kangaroos (which is almost anywhere, really). The photograph above was taken at Mates Gully.

The earlier post on fungi profiled the coprophilous Bird’s Nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus, which has been recorded at Mates Gully Rd. TSR and Kyeamba TSR. The species above grows on wood rather than dung and has been recorded at Matong, Ganmain and Kindra State Forests. Crucibulum laeve produces smaller fruiting bodies than its dung-loving cousin and is pale brown rather than blackish in colour. It grows in large clusters – the photograph shows only a small part of a much larger colony, possibly consisting of several hundred fruiting bodies.

This photograph was taken in Kindra State Forest near Coolamon.

This identification is somewhat tentative. I have based it on the manner in which the outer skin (which is rubbery and rather clammy in young fruits) dries and cracks to reveal the spore mass, a habit it shares with, for example, Calvatia cyathiformis. (See the wonderful Australian Fungi – a blog for information on that species).

This is quite a large species – the specimen photographed reached almost 20cm in diameter – but next to its relative Calvatia gigantea, which has been known to reach 150cm, it seems rather pathetic. That species is not found in Australia.

The photograph was taken in January of this year. The specimen was found in a lawn composed principally of introduced grasses (with some Wallaby Grass Austrodanthonia sp.) on the edge of Willans Hill.

Coprinus comatus is a common species of lawns and parks around Wagga. It often grows in loose colonies, as here. It is also known as the Shaggy Ink Cap.

Once these fruiting bodies reach maturity they quickly begin to autodigest, and before long all that will be left is a thick black liquid and a stem.

This photograph was taken on Pine Gully Rd., near Joyes Hall. Nearby was a colony of the Yellow Stainer (Agaricus xanthodermus) and a number of unidentified puffballs.

This is only a small selection of local species. For more, see the thumbnail gallery.

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1 Comment so far
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Its really very useful.

Comment by part time jobs




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