Birdwatching in Wagga Wagga


The Mates Gully Rd TSR [Flora]

The Mates Gully Rd TSR is a long, narrow strip of remnant Box-Ironbark forest running northwest to southeast along Mates Gully Rd. near Tarcutta. A report by the Department of Environment and Conservation (now the Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water) estimates that prior to European settlement almost 12,000 hectares of Box-Ironbark forest would have been found in the Wagga area. According to that same report, less than 10% of this forest-type remains. The authors recommend listing this woodland community as vulnerable under the TSC Act. They give their rationale as follows:

Although some remnants in fair to good condition remain, most notably in Mates Gully travelling stock reserve and small areas around Tarcutta, a large proportion of this community has been cleared or degraded as a result of clearing and grazing by stock [DEC, 2005: 28].

Mates Gully does show some signs of clearing and degradation, and noxious weeds like St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) and Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum) have infiltrated the reserve, but it is nevertheless remarkably well-preserved.

A small and by no means complete list of bird species recorded in the TSR can be found here. Two vulnerable species, the black-chinned honeyeater (Melithreptus gularis) and brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus), have been recorded in the reserve. The Mates Gully Rd TSR is also a known overwintering site for the endangered swift parrot (Lathamus discolor), though I haven’t recorded it there.

The reserve is also home to a number of reptiles, including the lace monitor (Varanus varius) and several skinks.

Trees

The dominant canopy species are Mugga Ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon), Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha), Red Box (E. polyanthemos), Grey Box (E. microcarpa) and Blakely’s Red Gum (E. blakelyi). The northwestern section of the TSR is only sparsely treed, presumably as a product of historical clearing, and is dominated by Red Stringybark and Mugga Ironbark. Immediately adjacent to this is a large stand of Red Box, which is relatively uncommon in the area. The southeastern end of the reserve has a much thicker canopy.

Shrubs

The Mates Gully Rd TSR displays a much greater diversity in the shrub-layer than do most of the area’s reserves. The northwestern section of the reserve, though dominated by forbs and grasses, contains four wattle species (Acacia paradoxa, A. genistifolia, A. pycnantha and A. lanigera) and five shrub legumes (Daviesia leptophylla, Dillwynia sericea, Hardenbergia violacea, Indigofera australis and Pultenaea foliolosa), as well as the yellow rice-flower (Pimelea curviflora) and a New Holland daisy (Vittadinia sp.). The centre of the TSR is dominated by Cassinia species, sometimes to the exclusion of all else. The southeastern end possesses probably the greatest shrub diversity in the reserve, containing heaths, wattles and legumes, including Hovea linearis, Dillwynia phylicoides and Platylobium formosum. The daphne heath (Brachyloma daphnoides), the peach heath (Lissanthe strigosa), the urn heath (Melichrus urceolatus) and a beard heath (Leucopogon sp.) are all common here. Hibbertia obtusifolia can also be found at this end.

Herbs and Forbs

The TSR also displays a great diversity in its groundcover species. Orchids recorded in the reserve are Cyanicula caerulea, Diuris chryseopsis, Hymenochilus muticus, Microtis unifolia, Petalochilus fuscatus (see below), Pterostylis nutans, two species of Stegostyla, and a sun orchid (possibly Thelymitra pauciflora). There are likely to be others. The northwestern end is dominated by the Common Everlasting (Chrysocephalum apiculatum), which can be seen in the photograph above, and also contains many Bulbine Lilies (Bulbine bulbosa) and Chocolate Lilies (Dichopogon strictus). Familiar herbs/forbs found in the TSR include a rock fern (Cheilanthes sp.), the pygmy sunray (Triptilodiscus pygmaeus), the smooth solenogyne (Solenogyne dominii), a woodruff (Asperula sp.) the native carrot (Dauchus glochidiatus), two saltbushes (Einadia hastata and Einadia nutans), the twining legume Glycine clandestina, the murnong or yam daisy (Microseris lanceolata), bluebells (Wahlenbergia spp.), the hill raspwort (Gonocarpus elatior) and the common raspwort (Gonocarpus tetragynus), the ivy goodenia (Goodenia hederacea), scrambled eggs (Goodenia pinnatifida), the pale sundew (Drosera peltata), the stinking pennywort (Hydrocotyle laxiflora), the many-flowered mat-rush (Lomandra multiflora), a fireweed (Senecio sp.), a native plantain (Plantago sp.), the black-anthered flax-lily (Dianella revoluta) and the blue flax-lily (Dianella longifolia), and the yellow rush-lily (Tricoryne elatior). Some areas are dominated by the shrub-like forb Stypandra glauca and there are many patches of the common buttercup (Ranunculus lappaceus) and the familiar sticky everlasting (Xerochrysum viscosum) at the southeastern end. Among the less familiar groundcover species found in the area are a copper-wire daisy (Podolepis sp.), spur velleia (Velleia paradoxa), kidneyweed (Dichondra repens), many finger flowers (Cheiranthera cyanea) and the blue pincushion (Brunonia australis). Hyssop loosestrife (Lythrum hyssopifolia), considered by some sources native and by others introduced, occurs in wetter areas of the TSR.

Grasses, Rushes and Sedges

The northwestern section of the reserve is a grassy open woodland dominated by speargrasses (Austrostipa spp.). At least three speargrass species are present, the most conspicuous being Austrostipa densiflora, which can be seen in the photograph at the top of this article. There are also two wiregrass (Aristida) species, including the brush wiregrass (Aristida behriana). Nineawn grass (Enneapogon nigricans) and common wheat-grass (Elymus scaber) occur in patches. Wallaby grass (Austrodanthonia sp.) and kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra) are also present in the reserve, as is weeping grass (Microlaena stipoides) and what looks like a native lovegrass (Eragrostis sp.). Red-anthered wallaby grass (Joycea pallida) occurs at the southeastern end. A sedge (Carex sp.) and a rush (Juncus sp.) have been recorded in the wetter areas of the reserve.

Fungi

The reserve also appears to possess significant fungal diversity. The following species/genera have been recorded in the area (though difficulties of identification mean that this list may not be entirely accurate): Agaricus, Aleurina, Amanita, Arcyria, Calocera, Campanella, Cheilymenia, Clitocybe, Coltricia cinnamomea, Coprinus, Cortinarius, Cyathus stercoreus, Geastrum, Hypholoma, Limacella, Lycoperdon, Macrolepiota, Mycena, Omphalina chromacea, Pisolithus, Poronia erici, Pycnoporus, Ramaria, Russula, Scleroderma, Stereum, Tremella, Xerula/Oudemansiella. Also recorded in the TSR was a small, ground-hugging cup fungus, possibly a species of Peziza. Both brown and black specimens were found.



The First Bulbine Lilies (and More)

The first of Willans Hill’s bulbine lilies emerged just over a week ago. Bulbines are extremely common and conspicuous, making them a good indicator of the onset of spring. A few less noticeable species have also begun flowering on the hill, including the glycines (Glycine spp.) and the native geranium (Geranium solanderi).

Livingstone National Park is home to the greatest diversity of plant life in the region, and a number of interesting species have started to emerge there. The parrot’s beak orchid (Pterostylis nutans), also known as the nodding greenhood, is one example.

Among the more interesting plants recorded in flower at Livingstone were the peach heath (Lissanthe strigosa), the pea-flower Hovea heterophylla, the granite mintbush (Prostanthera granitica) and a species of sundew (Drosera sp.), a carnivorous plant.

Also recorded were a species of buttercup (Ranunculus sp.), the purple coral-pea (Hardenbergia violacea) and a tiny star (Hypoxis sp.). The austral bear’s ear (Cymbonotus preissianus), an inconspicuous and unspectacular plant, was also in flower.

The golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha) is flowering along roadsides near Livingstone, as is the early wattle (Acacia genistifolia) and another species that may be the gold-dust wattle (Acacia acinacea). Within the park itself, some kangaroo thorn (Acacia paradoxa) and ploughshare wattle (Acacia gunnii) plants carried a few flowers.

Also recorded recently in Livingstone was a species of mosquito orchid (possiblyAcianthus collinus ).

Acianthus collinus is winter-flowering, rather than spring-flowering. This is the fourteenth orchid species I have recorded at Livingstone.

Addendum (13/08): Some Creamy Candles (Stackhousia monogyna) have started to emerge as well.

Also, a patch of greenhoods (possibly Pterostylis nana) was recorded on Willans Hill.



Signs of Spring
July 25, 2010, 11:30 pm
Filed under: Flora, Observations | Tags: , , , , ,

With barely more than a month left of winter, a number of early-flowering native plants are starting to show themselves. Of course, many Australian natives are highly opportunistic, responding swiftly to favourable conditions. Thus there will be often be wildflowers blooming at the coldest and least hospitable times of the year.

The native Grassland Wood-sorrel (Oxalis perennans) is one such. Unlike its weedy relative, Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae), Grassland Wood-sorrel is a small and inconspicuous plant. It is a common constituent of open woodland areas.

Some species, on the other hand, have very specific flowering periods. Early Nancy (Wurmbea dioica), as its name suggests, is one of the first plants to flower each year. Flowering plants have been recorded on Willans Hill since the beginning of June.

Hardenbergia violacea is a popular garden plant, and cultivars are available with purple, pink and white flowers. In its natural form it is a deep, vivid purple and flowers towards the end of winter and throughout spring. It is a member of the Fabaceae (often called the Leguminosae), along with the Glycines, Dillwynias, Pultenaeas and so on. It is also related (though slightly more distantly) to the wattles (Acacia spp.)

Another early flowering plant is Erodium crinitum, the Blue Storksbill (also known by many other names). It can be seen flowering early in July, but is perhaps more distinctive later in the year, when it produces fruit. The fruit is a tall spike, often produced in clusters (see its PlantNET profile for pictures).

All of these photographs were taken on Willans Hill in July of this year.

In other news, I have added the Brown Treecreeper and Crested Shrike-tit to the species list for Willans Hill. Neither species is commonly seen – the former is classed as Vulnerable, the latter is simply extremely cryptic in its habits.

I have also added thumbnail galleries of flora and fungi images to the site. These are still works-in-progress. I hope to add similar galleries for insects, reptiles, mammals etc., and also for specific locations (the flora and fauna of Willans Hill, for example).



Nest Hill Nature Reserve

Nest Hill Nature Reserve, formerly Pulletop State Forest, was gazetted in January 2001. It is located roughly 35km south of Wagga Wagga and 25km north of Holbrook. It is accessible only via management trails. The management plan can be found here, but is sadly rather light on details.

Surveys carried out by the National Parks and Wildlife Service recorded only 20 bird species in the park. The following is a list of more than thirty recorded by me in the space of a single visit (the discrepancy is hard to explain):
1. Australian Magpie
2. Australian Raven
3. +Australian Wood-Duck
4. +Black Swan
5. Black-Faced Cuckoo-Shrike
6. Brown Falcon
7. Brown Treecreeper
8. Common Bronzewing
9. Crested Pigeon
10. Eastern Rosella
11. Eastern Yellow Robin
12. Flame Robin
13. Galah
14. Grey Fantail
15. Grey Shrike-Thrush
16. Laughing Kookaburra
17. Magpie-lark
18. +Masked Lapwing
19. Pied Currawong
20. Red Wattlebird
21. Red-Rumped Parrot
22. Restless Flycatcher
23. Rufous Whistler
24. Striated Pardalote
25. Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo
26. Superb Fairy-Wren
27. Weebill
28. Welcome Swallow
29. White-Plumed Honeyeater
30. White-Throated Treecreeper
31. White-Winged Chough
32. Willie Wagtail
33. Yellow Thornbill

(Those species marked with a + were recorded on a farm dam immediately adjacent to the reserve). Of particular note is the Brown Treecreeper, the eastern subspecies of which (Climacteris picumnus victoriae) is classed as Vulnerable. (Though there is some debate as to whether the local subspecies is C. p. victoriae or C. p. picumnus). The Fantail Cuckoo and Cockatiel were recorded in the surrounding area in spring.

The Reserve is dominated by three vegetation communities:
1. Rough-Barked Red Box (Eucalyptus polyanthemos)/White Box (E. albens)
2. Inland Scribbly Gum (E. rossii)/Norton’s Box (E. nortonii)
3. Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha; pictured above)/Inland Scribbly Gum/Rough-Barked Red Box

Nest Hill NR contains what is probably the largest stand of Red Box in the Wagga area (it is found in smaller quantities in Livingstone NP and Mates Gully Rd TSR). The presence of Red Stringybark is also noteworthy for similar reasons.

The understorey is sparse and generally lacking in diversity, owing to extensive grazing prior to the Reserve’s gazettal. Weeds (including *Sonchus asper, *Galium aparine and *Trifolium spp.) are encroaching on the Reserve’s boundaries.

Among the species recorded were the heaths Melichrus urceolatus (Urn Heath; pictured above) and Lissanthe strigosa (Peach Heath); the orchids Pterostylis sp. aff. parviflora (Tiny Greenhood; see here and here) and Pterostylis falcata (Autumn or Sickle Greenhood); and the small herbs Goodenia hederacea (Ivy Goodenia; pictured below), Cymbonotus preissianus (Austral Bear’s-Ear; pictured below), Geranium solanderi (Native Geranium), Hydrocotyle laxiflora (Stinking Pennywort) and Dauchus glochidiatus (Austral Carrot).

Also recorded were the grasses Austrostipa scabra (Rough Speargrass), Microlaena stipoides (Weeping or Meadow Rice-Grass; uncommon) and a species of Poa (Tussock Grass). Grass Trees (Xanthorrhoea sp.) were also present.

There was also a substantial fungus population, including several large colonies of Phylloporus clelandii (pictured above), Limacella spp., Pisolithus tinctorius (Horse Dropping Fungus) and a small, woolly bracket fungus (possibly a species of Stereum; pictured below).

There were also a number of mosses and lichens.

***

This information comes from a single visit to the Reserve. Future visits are likely to yield much more.



Native Orchids in Livingstone National Park, Autumn Edition
May 21, 2010, 9:06 pm
Filed under: Flora | Tags: , , , , , , ,

Livingstone National Park has been logged, mined for gold, tin and wolframite, and used as a bombing range. And yet it is almost certainly the best-preserved area of remnant vegetation in the vicinity of Wagga. It was finally gazetted (as Livingstone National Park and Nature Reserve) in 2001. In 2006, the southern end (adjacent to the locality of Burrandana) was declared a State Conservation Area.

The park is apparently home to 20 or more species of orchid. Nine spring-flowering species were documented in this earlier post. PlantNET lists four further spring-flowering species (Caladenia dimorpha, C. phaeoclavia, Pterostylis mutica and Thelymitra ixioides) in the park. The management plan lists another four species: the greenhoods Pterostylis curta and Pterostylis longifolia, the ruddyhood Pterostylis pusilla and the tiny finger orchid Caladenia mentiens. Additionally, four species of autumn-flowering orchid are known from the park. These are profiled here.

* * *

Eriochilus cucullatus is a tiny, delicate and inconspicuous species. Each plant may carry up to five flowers, though most have only one or two. It has been recorded from the both the northern and southern sections of the park, and also from Murraguldrie Flora Reserve.

This identification is tentative. Genoplesium is a large genus, but G. rufum is the only species listed by PlantNET for the NSW South-West Slopes bioregion. This species is extremely variable. Its colouration runs the gamut from deep purple-black to mostly green with reddish or brownish tips to the lateral sepals (as in this case). Some debate exists as to whether Genoplesium rufum constitutes a single species or a complex of related varieties. The flowers on this particular specimen have closed for the year.

The Pterostylis sp. aff. parviflora complex accounts for almost a dozen species, subspecies or varieties of orchid. The variety found at Livingstone (assuming there is only one) may be the one referred to in Bishop’s 1996 field guide (currently out of print) as Pterostylis sp. aff. parviflora (Large Red-brown). Complicating this identification is the fact that many plants were found to have seven or eight flowers, whereas Bishop claims that Pterostylis sp. aff. parviflora (Large Red-brown) only rarely has more than six. Another variety it resembles commonly has up to eight flowers, but is known only from the Melbourne, Victoria area (designated by Bishop as Pterostylis sp. aff. parviflora (Eastern Melbourne)).

Tthe genus Speculantha has been proposed to distinguish the tiny greenhoods from the larger species, like the one below.


Another complicated identification. Pterostylis falcata is not recognised by Bishop and does not have an entry in PlantNET’s Flora of New South Wales. Nevertheless it is the only autumn-flowering greenhood that comes up in a PlantNET search for the flora of the Wagga Wagga LGA. (That list is not complete, however)

This species is extremely common in Livingstone National Park, often occuring in colonies of up to thirty plants. These colonies are composed of plants at varying stages of maturity. Younger and older flowers often take on unusual shapes:

* * *

Coming soon: posts on Nest Hill Nature Reserve and Plum Pudding Hill TSR and a series of posts on common urban and suburban birds of Wagga.



Murraguldrie Flora Reserve
January 31, 2010, 3:03 pm
Filed under: Flora, General, Observations | Tags: , , , , , ,

Murraguldrie Flora Reserve is located around 45km southeast of Wagga on the Tumbarumba Rd., which separates it from Murraguldrie State Forest proper. The Flora Reserve was established to protect the only known population (a few hundred mature specimens) of the bush-pea Pultenaea humilis in NSW. It is a wetter forest than is usually found in the area and this is reflected in the health and density of the vegetation and the large populations of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) found there.

There are other signs of a slightly different microclimate. Vanilla Lilies (Arthropodium milleflorum) and Chocolate Lilies (Dichopogon strictus), which typically flower in late spring, remained in flower in the reserve in mid-January.

Most of the reserve consists of eucalypts – including the Inland Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus rossii) – with a heathy understorey. Among the wildflowers found in the reserve are the Small St. John’s Wort (Hypericum gramineum) and several species of goodenia.

Note: Hypericum gramineum should be distinguished from the much larger Hypericum perforatum, which is a noxious weed. At least one other major weed – the Blackberry (Rubus sp.) – is found in the reserve.

Cassinias, a group of flowering natives with a tendency to spread, are also found in the reserve – principally along roadsides.

There is likely to be a substantial insect and arachnid population in the reserve as well. The following photographs show a selection of the more conspicuous species.

A list of bird species recorded in the reserve so far can be found here. (Note that this was compiled from very few visits and is likely to grow in the future). The most interesting species on the list are the White-Throated Gerygone (Gerygone olivacea) and the Olive-Backed Oriole (Oriolus sagittatus), neither of which has been recorded elsewhere in the region. The Brown Treecreeper (Climacteris picumnis), listed as vulnerable in NSW, is also a significant find.



Willans Hill in Summer
January 5, 2010, 9:59 pm
Filed under: Flora, General, Lists, Observations | Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

I have added the White-throated Gerygone (Gerygone olivacea) and the Dollarbird (Eurystomus orientalis) to the Wagga list. The former species was recorded in Murraguldrie Flora Reserve, a short distance south-east of Wagga. Birdata gives the impression that it is rarely seen any further west. The Dollarbird, on the other hand, is probably a regular, if uncommon, summer migrant to the area.


[NOTE: Click on the red text to view photographs].

Summer is now well and truly here and few wildflowers remain in bloom on Willans Hill. The heavy rains in mid-December encouraged a few of the more opportunistic species (Calotis spp., Vittadinia spp.) to put out new flowers, but even these are disappearing. A few Sticky Everlastings (Xerochrysum viscosum) remain, but most have gone to seed. Those bluebells (Wahlenbergia spp.) that remain will likely be gone within a few weeks. A single flowering plant of the summer-blooming Yellow Rush Lily (Tricoryne simplex) has been located; I would expect others to be present.


At present the hill’s understorey is comprised largely of native grasses, including Spear Grasses (Austrostipa spp.), Wire Grasses (Aristida spp.), Wallaby Grasses (Austrodanthonia spp.) and Common Wheat Grass (Elymus scaber). A few dry tussock grasses may be native Poa species. Redgrasses (Bothriochloa machra and Bothriochloa decipiens), Windmill Grass (Chloris truncata), Common Blown-Grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) and Hairy Panic (Panicum effusum), all natives, are also found on the hill, but principally in the more settled areas.


Many birds, including Grey Fantails (Rhipidura albiscapa) and Rufous Whistlers (Pachycephala rufiventris) are still to be seen with dependent young. Other young birds, such as this robin (probably a Red-Capped Robin), are starting to become semi-independent. At present the hill’s bird fauna is chiefly comprised of small insectivores (Weebills, Yellow and Yellow-Rumped Thornbills, Western Gerygones, the aforementioned Grey Fantails and Rufous Whistlers) — not surprising given the increasing insect population of the area. Probably most of the smaller insect species spend much of their time concealed in debris or under bark, but others can be seen gathered around the flowers of the Kurrajong tree (above). The Kurrajong, specimens of which are scattered across the hill, is a native, but is never the dominant species in natural woodlands. It is popular today in avenues and windbreaks, and has some value as a source of fodder in times of scarcity.

Grasshoppers (like this one and this one) are among the most numerous (and diverse) of the insects to be found on the hill at present, but there are also many wasps (Ichneumonids, Gasteruptiids, Braconids, Pompilids, and so on), flies (House Flies and Bush Flies, of course, but also Blowflies, Drone Flies, Hoverflies, Robber Flies, Flesh Flies, Bee Flies, and Tachinids [chiefly Rutilia sp.]), and beetles (Scarab Beetles, Christmas Beetles, Weevils, Belid Weevils, Pollen Beetles, Jewel Beetles, and, of course, Ladybirds).There are crickets, cicadas, leafhoppers, coreids (including the Eucalyptus Tip or Clown Bugs, Amorbus spp.), alydids, scorpionflies, native cockroachs (chiefly Ellipsidion australe and Ellipsidion humerale), antlions, lacewings, ants of various kinds, many insects too small to be noticed (though the tiny Rutherglen Bug [Nysius vinitor] forms breeding swarms so large as to be unmissable), and many others beyond my capacity to identify. Moths are well represented, as well. The most common are Oecophorids (including Eochrois spp. and Crepidosceles spp.) and Noctuids (including the Bogong Moth [Agrotis infusa] and the pest species Helicoverpa armigera). Geometrids and Cossids are seen reasonably frequently, also. The moths are so diverse they may warrant a series of their own.


The most conspicuous insects are, of course, the dragonflies and butterflies. The following 14 species of butterfly have so far been recorded on the hill: Australian Painted Lady (Vanessa kershawi), Cabbage White (*Pieris rapae), Caper White (Belenois java), Chequered Copper (Lucia limbaria), Common Brown (Heteronympha merope), Common Grass-Blue (Zizina labradus), Dainty Swallowtail (Papilio anactus, above), Greenish Grass-Dart (Ocybadistes walkeri, below), Lesser Wanderer (Danaus chrysippus), Meadow Argus (Junonia villida), Saltbush Blue (Theclinesthes serpentata), Spotted Jezebel (Delias aganippe), Two-Spotted Line-Blue (Nacaduba biocellata), Yellow Admiral (Vanessa itea). The Small Grass-Yellow (Eurema smilax) is known to occur in the Wagga area (having been recorded at Silvalite Reserve) and several others are predeicted to occur here. The most common butterfly is the tiny Common Grass-Blue, which is often seen in numbers in lawns and around flowering plants. The larger butterflies seem to alternate in frequency, with one species dominating for a time and then being being usurped by another. At present the Common Brown is the most commonly encountered, but earlier in the season it was the Caper White and before that the Australian Painted Lady. The introduced Cabbage White has remained relatively common throughout the season.


Only one member of the Skipper family (Hesperiidae) has been recorded here, the Greenish Grass-Dart. Other species can be found further east.

Spiders are also common on the hill at present, presumably taking advantage of the large number of small insects. Among the more common are the Garden Orb-Weaver (Eriophora transmarina), the Golden Orb-Weavers (Nephila spp.), the Common (or Bug-Mimicking) Swift Spider (Supunna picta), the Garden Wolf Spider (Lycosa godeffroyi), several Huntsman Spiders (family Heteropodidae), a number of Lynx Spiders (family Oxyopidae), Crab Spiders (family Thomisidae), Flower Spiders (Diaea spp.), and many Jumping Spiders (family Salticidae). Many of the spiders associated with human settlement – including the Black House Spider (Badumna insignis), White-Tailed Spider (Lampona cylindrata), the Daddy Long-Legs (Pholcus phalangioides) and the well-known, if not well-liked, Redback Spider (Latrodectus hasselti) – can be found on the hill. There’s also the occasional oddity.

That’ll do for now. I hope to post entries on Murraguldrie Flora Reserve and the Mates Gully Rd Travelling Stock Reserve soon.